OBJECTIVE: To study serum neurofilament light chain (sNfL) in amyloid light chain (AL) amyloidosis patients with and without polyneuropathy (PNP) and to corroborate previous observations that sNfL is increased in hereditary transthyretin-related (ATTRv) amyloidosis patients with PNP.
METHODS: sNfL levels were assessed retrospectively in patients with AL amyloidosis with and without PNP (AL/PNP+ and AL/PNP-, respectively), patients with ATTRv amyloidosis and PNP (ATTRv/PNP+), asymptomatic transthyretin (TTR) gene mutation carriers (TTRv carriers) and healthy controls. Healthy controls (HC) were age- and sex-matched to both AL/PNP- (HC/AL) and TTRv carriers (HC/TTRv). The single-molecule array (Simoa) assay was used to assess sNfL levels.
RESULTS: sNfL levels were increased both in 10 AL/PNP+ patients (p < .001) and in 10 AL/PNP- patients (p < .005) compared to 10 HC/AL individuals. sNfL levels were higher in AL/PNP+ patients than in AL/PNP- patients (p < .005). sNfL levels were also increased in 15 ATTRv/PNP+ patients, compared to both 15 HC/TTRv (p < .0001) and 15 TTRv carriers (p < .0001). ATTRv/PNP+ patients with progressive PNP (PND-score > I) had the highest sNfL levels compared to patients with early PNP (PND-score I) (p = .05). sNfL levels did not differ between TTRv carriers and HC/TTRv individuals. In the group comprising all healthy controls and in the group of TTRv carriers, sNfL levels correlated with age.
CONCLUSION: sNfL levels are increased in patients with PNP in both AL and ATTRv amyloidosis and are related to severity of PNP in ATTRv amyloidosis. sNfL is a promising biomarker to detect PNP, not only in ATTRv but also in AL amyloidosis.