Dependency on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) is a potential weakness for leukemic stem cells (LSC) that can be exploited for therapeutic purposes. Fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is a crucial OxPhos-fueling catabolic pathway for some acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells, particularly chemotherapy-resistant AML cells. Here, we identified cold sensitivity at 4◦C (cold killing challenge; CKC4), commonly used for sample storage, as a novel vulnerability that selectively kills AML LSCs with active FAO-supported OxPhos while sparing normal hematopoietic stem cells. Cell death of OxPhos-positive leukemic cells was induced by membrane permeabilization at 4◦C; by sharp contrast, leukemic cells relying on glycolysis were resistant. Forcing glycolytic cells to activate OxPhos metabolism sensitized them to CKC4. Lipidomic and proteomic analyses showed that OxPhos shapes the composition of the plasma membrane and introduces variation of 22 lipid subfamilies between cold-sensitive and cold-resistant cells. Together, these findings indicate that steady-state energy metabolism at body temperature predetermines the sensitivity of AML LSCs to cold temperature, suggesting that cold sensitivity could be a potential OxPhos biomarker. These results could have important implications for designing experiments for AML research to avoid cell storage at 4◦C.