A non-randomized risk-adjusted comparison of lenalidomide + R-CHOP versus R-CHOP for MYC-rearranged DLBCL patients

Patients with MYC rearranged (MYC-R) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) have a poor prognosis. Previously, we demonstrated in a single-arm phase II trial (HOVON-130) that addition of lenalidomide to R-CHOP (R2CHOP) is well-tolerated and yields similar complete metabolic remission rates as more intensive chemotherapy regimens in literature. In parallel with this single-arm interventional trial, a prospective observational screening cohort (HOVON-900) was open in which we identified all newly diagnosed MYC-R DLBCL patients in the Netherlands. Eligible patients from the observational cohort that were not included in the interventional trial served as control group in the present risk-adjusted comparison. R2CHOP treated patients from the interventional trial (n = 77) were younger than patients in the R-CHOP control cohort (n = 56) (median age 63 versus 70 years, p = 0.018) and they were more likely to have a lower WHO performance score (p = 0.013). We adjusted for differences at baseline using 1:1 matching, multivariable analysis, and weighting using the propensity score to reduce treatment-selection bias. These analyses consistently showed improved outcome after R2CHOP with HRs of 0.53, 0.51, and 0.59, respectively, for OS, and 0.53, 0.59, and 0.60 for PFS. Thus, this non-randomized risk-adjusted comparison supports R2CHOP as an additional treatment option for MYC-R DLBCL patients. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

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